It’s been over a year since I began working for Future Scientist and over a year meeting and collaborating with the people of Colón. In all that time I have become acquainted with the many problems that the Colón population faces in Costa Arriba. Water system infrastructure failures, poor water system administration, mediocre to utter lack of waste management as well as access to waste management services, poverty, substandard medical care and access to health clinics, and lack of economic opportunities are a handful of the problems that communities face in the isolated extremes of Costa Arriba. To the date we have done three project design seminars in three communities: Portobelo, Nombre de Dios, and Palenque. In Portobelo we did it for the high school students and in Nombre de Dios and Palenque we did it for the community members, all in the hopes that they would use the tools and methodologies taught in order to carry out a self proposed project for the betterment of their respective communities. The seminar in Palenque was carried out on April 24th and I had a more intimate group that participated. 5 of the 6 members of the Palenque Water Committee were trained in sustainable project design. It was nice having a smaller dedicated group of adults who were in a position that they volunteered for in order to do projects so I thought they would be the greatest benefactors of a seminar like our design thinking seminar.
Despite the water committee being made up of older adults, they were great participants and were great in the activities. They paid attention, asked questions, and showed enthusiasm in the material. I went through all the subject matter that I have in the design charla so as to not leave anything out for the committee. They responded positively to the activities that are great for breaking up the monotony and creating hands-on connections between the material and its usefulness. Having a smaller more focused group had its advantages in that it allowed me to focus on a specific group of leaders in the community and give them the tools to develop their ideas into tangible projects.
Due to their time in the community and as the acting committee they were able to share a litany of problems that they have seen with the administration of the water system as well as the infrastructural problems that have come up over the history of the aqueduct. The administrative problems reflected on them as they mentioned that there has never been consequences for not paying their monthly water bill so people owe the water committee from months to even years back. This is a huge problem for a water committee if they want to be self-sustainable. If the committee has no funds to use to do projects or maintenance, how will they ever get anything done? This is the vicious cycle I see in these communities where nobody pays their water bill since they figure why pay if the water isn’t the most reliable; then the water committee has no funds in order to improve or repair the system, then the system gets worse and it creates less of an incentive to pay among community members and the cycle just continues to turn and feed itself. The solution they came up with for this problem was to create a better system of consequence for not paying the monthly water bill. The idea was to install valves on the water line to every house so that if the house did not pay there was a valve for which to cut water to their house until they paid. Another solution they came up with was a complete restructuring of the tube network within the town in order to create a better system of distribution and management of water payment defaults among community members. The truth is a lot of these problems and solutions don’t have so much to do with the actual water system rather the social and economic constructs of these communities that causes people to not trust their organizations and neighbors and in the end not pay for things that benefit the entire community and common good instead of the individual.
I am hoping that I can have more interactions with other water committees in Costa Arriba similar to the one I have had with the committee in Palenque. They are a group of genuinely concerned community members who want to see their work through and for the benefit of all, despite the difficulties that are presented. I will continue to work with them and together we will try to implement their solutions and maybe try a few of my own ideas for the betterment of their water system. There are other water committees that are in need of education and I am working on contacting them. We hope for the fruits of education to grow from our efforts with these communties and create a better future for its members.
This past month of March I have had the opportunity to get to know and work with the Palenque water committee. It has been a pleasure to get to know them and analyze the problems that they face with their water system and water security. I began the month by having a meeting with them in order to establish our relationship. From there we programmed a hiking trip to the water source of the gravity-fed water system. Since my community meeting with Nombre de Dios about the need to form a JAAR (Administrative Committee for Rural Aqueducts) I have been waiting for them to organize and invite me to the elections. So in the meantime I have been moving up the coast to find other opportunities with other communities and community organizations in order to aid in project development and problem solving. The water committee in Palenque presented itself as a good place to continue for the AGUA COLÓN project as well as our charla efforts for Future Scientist.
El comité y el problema
I have enjoyed meeting and working with the Palenque water committee. They are a group of individuals who are clearly invested in and care about the well being of the potable water in the community. They presented the problems they are facing and which they’d wish to solve. The projects they have in mind are extensive and ambitious. These problems were a complete replacement of the distribution system from the storage tank to each home in the community. They also want to finish the well that was built by Open Blue. They coordinated the construction of a pump house for the pump they are going to install in the well in order to send water to the community. If the well is successful they will have water coming from the aqueduct and the well, which will greatly improve the amount of water available in the community and may even provide 24/7 potable water for community members. I have been collaborating with the committee members and the representative Pablo Salazar in investigating the problem and searching for information on the distribution system which, according to the committee, was installed decades ago by CONADES, a government institution dedicated to improving potable water systems in Panamá. More information will be necessary to tackle this problem and fix the distribution network. The concern that this committee shows for the water situation in Palenque is exemplary among water committees in the region. Many communities have commented to me about the administration problems that plague water committees along the coast but I can clearly see that the Palenque water committee is a dedicated group of individuals who care about the access to potable water for their community and are united in its maintenance and well-being.
Scouting the Line With Álvaro
On March 13th I hiked two hours up to the spring box that collects the water for the gravity fed aqueduct system in Palenque. I was led by the water committee president Álvaro Salazar and we were accompanied by Francisco Pizarro and Enrique Rodríguez, two community members. The hike we went on was a two hour (four hours round trip) trek uphill into the river where they constructed the spring-box for the gravity-fed aqueduct system. Álvaro is a 65 year old man who can still hike with the best of them. When walking with him I often forgot about his age since he is physically able and in great condition. He and a volunteer are the ones who go up every other week to check the spring-box and clean it so that the water flows smoothly from the source to the storage tank to the community. He became president of the committee simply because the previous president stopped showing interest and he stepped up to take on the responsibility. He is retired and he simply does what he does for the water committee because he cares about the community and its well-being. And his leadership shows in the rest of the committee since they are equally invested in their work for Palenque. They are doing the best with what they have but I hope that I can give them more tools to confront their problems with so that they may come up with impactful solutions that last.
We stopped every so often to scout the line to see if there were any repairs needed or breaks where water could have been escaping. All along the line there were holes that had been made to release air pressure so as not to have air bubbles form in the water line. The holes were punched into spots on the line where the line would rise to a hill or high point and then drop again. These are where air bubbles can form and they can block the flow of water to the storage tank. However these holes also allow water to escape and the system loses precious gallons of water by the day, gallons that could be saved if instead of holes they placed air release valves. This was one of my first observations. When we reached the spring box I noticed that the water level of the river where the intake box is located was low. Water was constantly entering the box and the intake pipe but at a slow rate. There is a dam that has been built to funnel the river water to the spring box, but it is clear that summer has dried the river to a slow trickle. Summer hits water sources hard in Panama if the surrounding areas, like trees and vegetation, are not well preserved. If there is a lot of deforestation for cow pastures and farmland, the watershed loses its ability to retain its water supply through the summer dry season. The spring box was also filled with leaves and other debris so we cleaned it out so that the water would flow better and the spring box would fill faster. We cleaned the intake into the system and where the water enters the spring box. After letting the water flow for awhile I took my water sample for AGUA COLÓN and we made our way back down to Palenque. Upon seeing the water system I think that what really can be done to the infrastructure is simple the air release valves instead of the holes in the tubes. This would save countless gallons of water that they lose a day. In Peace Corps we were taught how to make air release valves using PVC pipes and a little rubber ball. I want to pitch this idea to the water committee to see if we could implement it into their water system and could save them a real headache down the road. We will see what future investigations bring up about the network of tubes in the town and how it can be repaired or replaced in order to ensure that the water coming from the source arrives to each household clean and consistently.
Plans for April
My plans for April are to organize a design thinking charla for the Palenque water committee and start extending to Miramar in order to see what opportunities there are for charlas and projects that the community might want to do. I will continue the search for new water sample sites according to what the project coordinator wants for samples.
Sometimes being the only one in the field has its disadvantages. Due to the scope of the work I’m required to cover a large geographical area and it is hard for me to do a lot in a day when I have to be in two places that are far away from one another, or when I have to travel far for a meeting or to give a charla. However that’s when building relationships comes to the forefront of my job. Establishing working relationships within the communities and getting community members to do tasks within the community to advance our projects is fundamental in two ways: 1. It allows me to focus on other tasks trusting that the community is taking charge and 2. This is the goal of all development work, that is to say that the community becomes responsible for their own development. In Peace Corps they said that the ideal situation in development work is to work yourself out of a job. Working with and empowering community members so that they eventually are the ones who do everything is the dream result of any development worker. This is the very definition of sustainable development. This has been the objective of building our network of clinics in Costa Arriba. The fact that the chlorine charla comes from the medical personnel within those communities builds the sense of ownership and personal connection between the clinic and the community. This is important in creating longevity for the educational material and so that it remains in circulation long after we have left the area. The Self-Solving Initiative was born from this idea as well. We hope that people take an interest in solving the problems within their community and this way they take ownership of the solution. The idea is that we are simply there to be a catalyst for change and a guiding hand in any sort of technical or methodological problems they may face in the formation of their solution. We are hoping that our efforts will produce lasting positive changes in the rural communities of Colón.
This month two of our new clinics in Cacique and San Antonio have begun to give chlorine charlas. So far they have reached 63 people from the surrounding area. We have ordered three large banners with the chlorine instructions printed on them to hang in clinics in Costa Arriba so that there is always a visual aid available for both personnel and patients. We are awaiting results from the clinics in La Guaira and Portobelo, but we hope to receive attendance lists soon. This network of clinics has expanded our outreach and assured sustainability of the education and in the long run the health of community members in Costa Arriba, Colón.
On February 6th I met with six community representatives from the Costa Arriba region. The representatives are from the communities of Cuango, Nombre de Dios, Palmira, Palenque, Viento Frío, and Playa Chiquita. This was a chance for me to meet the political figures of these communities and establish a relationship with them for future projects or charlas. Representatives are good sources for organizational and monetary support since they are the ones who manage the community project budgets and are often the ones who hear about their communities’ problems. With them I hope to connect to local water committees in order to give them charlas and train them in problem solving with design thinking and develop solutions together for the potable water systems in their communities. This will also give me a medium through which to broadcast information and data gather from the AGUA COLÓN project with INDICASAT, our Panamanian government partner.
We have begun sampling in Costa Arriba in our project with INDICASAT called AGUA COLÓN. On February 15th I went to gather water samples from three wells in the Santa Isabel district in Colón. The wells belong to the communities of Viento Frío, Palenque, and Miramar. They were all built by a company call Open Blue, which is a organic fish farming business in Colón, Panamá. They built these wells out of a part of their budget which is dedicated to community development of the area. They will be another great ally in community project development, and we hope to collaborate with them in the future. Our sampling trip served as an exploratory trip as well. We got to get a lay of the land and map out an idea of how we want to carry out subsequent trips and how we want to develop the project from sampling to community education and transparency. I have another sampling trip planned for the 13th of March. I will be hiking with a water committee member to the Palenque spring source to examine the aqueduct line and get a sample from the source to test its quality. This will give us a bigger picture of the water situation in Palenque.
As we continue to accelerate as an organization, these relationships we build and maintain will become ever more important and decisive in the success or failure of our projects. Hopefully our work in educating the community members leads to these very members taking ownership of their problems and uniting to come up with solutions on their own. Hopefully no outside influence will be needed to push them in the right direction and they can be left alone to their own devices. This is our goal in Future Scientist and forever will be for all development workers worldwide.
After much talk with Aníbal, my counterpart in Nombre de Dios, we organized a community meeting to discuss the issues with the water. Before the date of the meeting, Aníbal spent a few days with a megaphone announcing the meeting and trying to get as many people to attend as possible. He invited the Medical Director of the clinic in Nombre de Dios/Miramar as well, a man who I had met due to my chlorine charla training session with the medical staff there. My idea for the meeting was to introduce the ideal situation of a community and its water system, then talk about the problem in Nombre de Dios while clarifying the problem while the community members put in their input. The ideal situation in any rural community is that they have what is called a JAAR, or a Junta Administrativa de Acueductos Rurales (Rural Aqueducts Administrative Committee). This is a group of community members who volunteer and are voted for to manage and maintain the local water system. The fact that they volunteer shows interest in the work and assures that they will do their duty in assuring the proper functioning of the aqueduct. The fact that they are elected serves to give community support to each member of the committee and avoid the problem of special interests among members of the JAAR. There are six positions in the JAAR: president, secretary, treasurer, prosecutor, and the vocals. The president’s role is to represent the committee, authorize the use of funds, and organize meetings. The secretary’s role is to take notes during meetings, keep inventory on all materials the committee has for the aqueduct, and prepare documents. The treasurer’s duties are to collect, administer, and deposit aqueduct funds and keep track of monetary transactions. The prosecutor’s responsibilities are to enforce the rules of water use and payment within the community and help with the committee’s organization. The vocals’ job is to announce meetings and activities to the community to ensure their participation. Once a JAAR is formed it is up to the community to participate in paying their monthly fee, attend meetings organized by the water committee, and be actively involved in the well-being of the aqueduct. After explaining all this in our meeting, it was time to look at the problem from the angle of design thinking.
The three tools I chose to use to get the gears moving in analyzing the problem the people faced in Nombre de Dios were the double diamond, the problem tree, and the brainstorm (see photos below). With the double diamond I wanted to show the community how the art of solving a problem and coming up with a sustainable solution is a process and that it requires investigation and working together. I wanted them to see that understanding the problem is equally if not more important than the solution itself. With the problem tree I wanted people to see how to break down a problem and to better understand where it comes from and what it leads to. And finally as the take-away I wanted people to begin to brainstorm ideas, not only alone but with other community members, to bring to the next meeting. When I talked about the double diamond and mentioned the need for investigation, it got the community members talking about how to understand the problem. One man suggested doing a complete hike of the water system and make a map of it and on the map mark the locations of every repair needed. This was a great example of the investigation phase of design thinking, that first part of the double diamond. However once we looked at the problem tree, the problem began to look a little clearer. The amount of repairs needed was not the central problem to the water situation in Nombre de Dios, but a consequence of a much deeper rooted problem, organization and administration, or rather its lack thereof. This became ever clearer as the meeting went on.
As I was going through each of the three design approach tools, tensions began to rise among community members. It was clear that this topic was the cause of much conflict within the community, and had deeply divided its members. This came to the forefront the more we talked about the water system. What I learned was that there are two water systems that serve two parts of the town. One serves what people call “La barriada” and the other system serves the rest of the town. So Nombre de Dios has been separated into these two groups that tend to blame each other from stealing water from the other. When La barriada has water, the rest of the town does not and vice versa. They accuse each other of tampering with the water line to direct more water to their respective parts of town. During the meeting I was finally able to see this division up close and personal and I felt it was my duty to help them mitigate the problem and come to a solution that would be satisfactory to everyone involved.
I ended my portion of the meeting by leaving the community with the task of brainstorming a solution and to invite me back to discuss the proposed ideas. After I had finished speaking, Aníbal wanted some time to discuss the new damages found along the aqueduct line and why it was important that the community pay the monthly water fee so that these damages could be repaired. He and a select others were the only ones, voluntarily and unofficially, trying to solve the problems of the aqueduct with little to no support from the community. What was needed was an official group of people who were legally responsible and accountable for the management of the water system, and that is what the next speaker highlighted when he took the stage.
I met Dr. Elías when I was organizing my chlorine charla training session with the clinic in Miramar. He is the Medical Director of that clinic and he lives in Nombre de Dios. So for him he is equally invested in the well-being of the aqueduct as the rest of the community. When he spoke he stressed the importance and the utter necessity of a JAAR in a rural community like Nombre de Dios. He explained that without a formal group of people responsible for the water system then they [the community] would be stuck in this endless cycle of finger-pointing, blaming, and band-aid repairs; without ever coming up with a long term solution. They needed to unite as a community and elect a group of people willing to take on the challenge of managing the aqueduct. The lack of organization and administration would forever condemn Nombre de Dios to a mediocre aqueduct and mediocre management. As a representative of MINSA he is able to connect the community with the resources necessary within the ministry, such as legal resources and processes, to help them legalize and legitimize the JAAR. Dr. Elías will be a key player in the formation of a long-term solution for the water system in Nombre de Dios, and I look forward to help make that solution a reality.
We have a lot of work ahead of us in the communities we have worked in and the communities we are being introduced to. This month we will be meeting with the representatives of various communities to establish relationships and begin scheduling design charlas in communities in the Santa Isabel region. For the AGUA COLÓN project I have planned a group trip on the 17th to go and see the water sources for the first time for future water collection. I will go with a collaborator from the Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá (UTP), his two students, and a collaborator from INDICASAT so that they too will be able to see the sources.
2019 is underway and we have wasted no time in working with communities and growing our outreach along the coast. We opened up the month with some more chlorine charla training sessions with health workers in the hospital in Portobelo. Our efforts in Miramar have led to four charlas being done by the staff for patients. We also did a charla at the MINSA (Ministry of Health) clinic in Portobelo, which united clinic directors from other communities such as San Antonio, Cacique and La Guaira. Now we have trained health staff in five communities throughout Costa Arriba: Portobelo, Miramar, San Antonio, Cacique, and La Guaira. On January 22nd we had a meeting with the Nombre de Dios community to discuss the water problem that has plagued the town for so long. All these activities in January reflect our effort to not only unite ourselves with communities in order to help them, but to also unite the very people within the community.
In the Portobelo hospital we gave a charla to the two parts of the staff in the hospital, the medical staff and the administrative staff. It was important that both sectors of the staff showed up so that the whole hospital staff would be informed and able to give the charla to patients. Because of this I had to give the charla on two different days so as not to interfere with the entire function of the hospital. In total I trained 22 staff members in the hospital. Since this is the only major hospital in the region, I am hoping that the chlorine charla will reach that many more people and teach them the importance of treating their water at home.
In Miramar the nurses have been hard at work. The nine trained staff members have now given the charla to 40 patients in three charlas that have been recorded by Future Scientist. They recently asked for more pipettes and pamphlets to hand out, which indicates interest in the communities where the patients come from. We are hoping for more charla success from medical staff in Miramar, where they have been the first in receiving and implementing our Clean Water Access Initiative.
When I was coordinating the charla for the MINSA clinic in Portobelo with Dr. Miranda, he mentioned that at the end of the month the directors of the other clinics would all meet. I saw this as an opportunity to kill many birds with one stone. The directors of the clinics in Cacique, La Guaira and San Antonio were going to attend a meeting in the Portobelo clinic and the plan was to train all the directors so that they gave the charlas in their respective clinics and trained their staff. Just as planned, the directors came and received the charla and I gave them all kits to begin giving the charla to their patients. This saved me a bunch of time and travel and I was able to extend our chlorine charla network four-fold in one fell swoop.
In total 46 staff members have been trained to give the chlorine charla and the six health centers supplied with materials. We will be on the lookout for more clinics to connect with in order to keep spreading the chlorine charla throughout the region to ensure that people receive the education necessary to treat the water in their homes and prevent water borne disease. As we move forward I will continue collecting charla data from the clinics we already have active. I am proud that we have created a education network that is already starting to bear fruit and we are reaching more people than we ever thought possible. Education really is power.